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Official Name – United Republic of Tanzania
The United Republic of Tanzania was formed in 1964 following the merger of two sovereign states of Tanzania mainland then Tanganyika and the Zanzibar constituting of the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba. Tanganyika was colonized by the Germans at the end of the 19th century. After German defeat in the First World War, the League of Nations designated Tanganyika a British Mandate until December 1961 when the country achieved full independence. Zanzibar achieved independence in 1963. Following a popular revolution which took place in January 1964, Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania.
Tanzania is one of the most stable multi-party democracies in Africa. Elections are held every 5 years to choose the President and Members of Parliament for the Union Government; and the President and Members of the House of Representatives for the Zanzibar Revolutionary Government.
Tanzania is the largest country in East Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the East; Kenya and Uganda to the North; Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo to the West; and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the South. With an area of 947,300 sq km, Tanzania is slightly larger than the states of Texas and Michigan combined; or about the size of British Columbia. The Country’s notable physical features include, Kilimanjaro Mountain; the highest mountain in Africa, Lake Victoria the second largest lake in the World and Lake Tanganyika the second deepest lake in the world.
Tanzania’s economy is primarily dependent on agriculture, which employs about 80% of the work force and contributes 27% of GDP and over 80% of export earnings. However the country offers tremendous opportunities for investors as it is endowed with significant natural resources. Major resources include fertile land and abundant water resources for agricultural irrigation, world-class tourist attractions such as Mount Kilimanjaro, Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater national parks, Selousgame reserve, pristine beaches and Zanzibar. In addition the country has excellent geographical location in the East African region with the Port of Dar es Salaam being the gateway for the land locked African countries of DRC, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Zambia and Malawi.
Tanzania has abundant mineral resources. The country’s mining industry is driven by gold mining. Since the mid 1990’s, Tanzania has been the major focus of Africa’s gold exploration and development attracting some of the largest mining companies in the World. Major gold mining companies operating in the country include Barrick of Canada, Anglo Gold Ashanti of South Africa and Resolute. Gold output in Tanzania increased from 5 tonnes in 1997 to 50 tonnes in 2007 earning the country third position in Africa after South Africa and Ghana. Tanzania has also substantial reserves of other minerals including nickel, iron ore, copper, uranium, coal, diamond and a wide variety of gemstones such as ruby and sapphire, emerald, alexandrite, green garnet and Tanzanite, which is only found and mined in Tanzania.